PP

by / Jumma'a, 25 Maris 2016 / Aka buga a Albarkatun kasa

Bayanin polypropylene (PP), kuma aka sani da polypropene, shi ne thermoplastik polymer da aka yi amfani da shi a yawancin aikace-aikace da dama ciki har da marufi da lakabi, suttura (misali, igiyoyi, riguna na ƙarfe da kuma kifin), ɗakin ajiyar kayayyaki, sassan filastik da kwantena masu sake amfani da nau'ikan nau'ikan, kayan dakin gwaji, lasifikan murya, kayan haɗin motoci, da adon banki na polymer. Polyarin ƙarin polymer da aka yi daga propylene na monomer, yana da ruguwa kuma ba a iya jurewa ba musamman ga abubuwan da ke tattare da sunadarai, tushe da acid.

A cikin 2013, kasuwar duniya ta polypropylene kusan tan miliyan 55 ne.

names
IUPAC sunan:

poly (propene)
Wasu sunaye:

Propylene; Polypropene;
Polipropene 25 [USAN]; Magungunan Propene;
Magungunan Propylene; 1-Propene
Alamomin
9003-07-0 A
Properties
(C3H6)n
yawa 0.855 g / cm3, amorphous
0.946 g / cm3, kukan kwalliya
narkewa batu 130 zuwa 171 ° C (266 zuwa 340 ° F; 403 zuwa 444 K)
Sai dai in an lura in ba haka ba, ana bayar da bayanai don kayan a cikinsu daidaitaccen jihar (a 25 ° C [77 ° F], 100 kPa).

Sinadarai da kaddarorin jiki

Micrograph na polypropylene

Polypropylene yana cikin fuskoki da yawa kama da polyethylene, musamman a cikin halayen halayyar mafita da kayan lantarki. Arin ƙungiyar methyl ta yanzu tana haɓaka kayan aikin injiniya da juriya na thermal, yayin da haɓakar sinadarai ke raguwa. Kadarorin polypropylene sun dogara da nauyin kwayar halitta da rarraba kwayar, kwayoyi masu kyau, nau'ikan da rabon communer (idan anyi amfani dasu) da kuma dabarun isowa.

Mechanical Properties

The yawa na PP ne tsakanin 0.895 da 0.92 g / cm³. Saboda haka, PP ne filastik kayayyaki tare da mafi ƙasƙanci yawa. Tare da ƙananan yawa, sassa sassa tare da ƙananan nauyi kuma ƙarin sassan wani adadin filastik ana iya samarwa. Ba kamar polyethylene ba, yanki na crystalline da amorphous sun bambanta kawai dan kadan a cikin girman su. Koyaya, yawancin polyethylene na iya canzawa tare da fillers.

Matsayin Matasa na PP yana tsakanin 1300 da 1800 N / mm².

Polypropylene koyaushe yana da taushi da sassauƙa, musamman idan aka haɗa shi da ethylene. Wannan yana ba da damar yin amfani da polypropylene azaman filastik injiniya, yin takara tare da kayan kamar acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). Polypropylene yana da tattalin arziƙi.

Polypropylene yana da kyakkyawar jure gajiya.

Kayan kwalliya

Yankin narkewar polypropylene na faruwa ne a wani fanni, saboda haka ana narkar da narkar da shi ta hanyar gano mafi yawan zafin jiki na jadawalin binciken kwalliya daban-daban. Cikakkiyar iskar PP tana da narkar da 171 ° C (340 ° F). Kasuwancin istactic PP yana da maɓallin narkewa wanda ya fara daga 160 zuwa 166 ° C (320 zuwa 331 ° F), gwargwadon ƙarancin kayan aiki da kristal. Syndiotactic PP tare da lu'ulu'u na 30% yana da narkar da 130 ° C (266 ° F). Kasa da 0 ° C, PP ya zama mai laushi.

Expansionarfin polypropylene na zafi yana da girma sosai, amma da ɗan ƙasa da na polyethylene.

Chemical Properties

Polypropylene yana cikin yanayin zafin jiki mai tsayayya da mai kuma kusan dukkanin abubuwan narkewa na jiki, banda mayuka masu ƙarfi. Ana iya adana abubuwan da ba su da kuzari da kuma asas a cikin kwantena da aka yi da PP. A tsawan zafin jiki, PP za a iya warware shi ta ƙananan kalanda masu ƙarancin ƙarfi (misali xylene, tetralin da decalin). Saboda kwayar zarra ta PP ba ta da ƙarfi kamar ta PE (duba dokar Markovnikov).

Yawancin polypropylene na kasuwanci isotactic kuma yana da tsaka-tsakin matakin girma na lu'ulu'u a tsakanin wannan low-yawa polyethylene (LDPE) da high-yawa polyethylene (HDPE). Isotactic & Atactic polypropylene yana narkewa a cikin P-xylene a digiri na digiri 140. Isotactic precipitates lokacin da bayani ya sanyaya zuwa 25 digiri centigrade & atactic rabo ya kasance mai narkewa a cikin P-xylene.

Yawan narkewar kwararar ruwa (MFR) ko narkar da kwararar ruwa (MFI) shine ma'aunin nauyin kwayoyin polypropylene. Ma'aunin yana taimakawa wajen tantance yadda narkakken abun narkakken zai gudana a yayin aiki. Propylene tare da MFR mafi girma zai cika filastik filastik sauƙin yayin allura ko aikin samar da abun busawa. Yayin da narkewar ruwa ke ƙaruwa, kodayake, wasu kaddarorin jiki, kamar ƙarfin tasiri, zasu ragu. Akwai nau'ikan polypropylene guda uku gabaɗaya: homopolymer, bazuwar copolymer, da kuma toshe copolymer. Ana amfani da kwaminis tare da ethylene. Robar Ethylene-propylene ko EPDM da aka ƙara zuwa polypropylene homopolymer yana ƙaruwa da ƙananan tasirin tasirin zafin jiki. Tsarin polymerized ethylene monomer wanda aka kara zuwa polypropylene homopolymer yana rage karfin polymer din, ya rage narkar da shi kuma yasa polymer ya zama mai gaskiya.

Ragewa

Polypropylene abin dogaro ne ga lalacewar sarkar daga kamuwa da zafi da rawanin UV kamar wanda yake cikin hasken rana. Samun Oxidation yawanci yakan faru ne a ɗakunan atam na carbon da ke cikin kowane maimaita maimaitawa. An samo asali mai kyauta a nan, sannan kuma ya kara aiki tare da iskar oxygen, sannan biye da sarkar sarkar don samar da aldehydes da acid na carboxylic. A aikace-aikacen waje, yana nuna azaman cibiyar sadarwar kyawawan fasa da ƙira waɗanda suka zurfafa kuma suka fi tsanani tare da lokacin ɗaukar hotuna. Don aikace-aikacen waje, dole ne a yi amfani da abubuwan kara karfin UV. Carbon baki kuma yana ba da kariya daga harin UV. Hakanan za'a iya sanya polymer a yanayin zafi mai zafi, matsala ta gama gari yayin ayyukan gyarar. Anti-oxidants ana karawa koyaushe don hana lalacewar polymer. Communitiesungiyoyin masu keɓancewa daga keɓaɓɓun samfuran ƙasa waɗanda aka gauraya da sitaci an nuna cewa suna iya lalata polypropylene. An bayar da rahoton polypropylene ta kaskantar yayin da yake jikin mutum kamar kayan raga masu dasawa. Lalataccen abu yana samar da itacen da ya yi kama da haushi a saman zaren raga.

Abubuwan da ke gani

Ana iya yin PP translucent lokacin da ba'a rufe shi ba amma ba a bayyana shi da sauri kamar polystyrene, acrylic, ko wasu filastik. Yawancin lokaci opaque ne ko mai launi ta amfani da launi.

Tarihi

Phillips Petroleum chemists J. Paul Hogan da Robert L. Banks sun fara polymerized propylene a cikin 1951. Propylene an fara polymerized ne zuwa Giralio Natta da kuma masanin ilmin kimiyan nan dan kasar Jamus Karl Rehn a cikin Maris 1954. Wannan binciken na farko ya haifar da manyan- sikelin samar da polypropylene na isotactic da kamfanin Italiya mai suna Montecatini ya yi daga 1957 zuwa gaba. Syndiotactic polypropylene shima Natta da abokan aikin sa sun hada shi da farko.

Polypropylene shine filastik na biyu mafi mahimmanci tare da kudaden shiga da ake tsammanin za su wuce dala biliyan 145 daga shekarar 2019. Kasuwancin wannan kayan ana hasashen zasu yi girma da kimanin kashi 5.8% a kowace shekara har zuwa 2021.

kira

Gajerun sassan polypropylene, suna nuna misalai na isotactic (sama) da syndiotactic (a ƙasa) dabara

Muhimmin ra'ayi game da fahimtar hanyar haɗi tsakanin tsarin polypropylene da kaddarorinsa dabara ce. Bayyanar kusancin kowane rukuni na methyl (CH
3
a cikin adadi) dangane da ƙungiyoyin methyl a cikin sassan monomer masu makwabtaka yana da tasiri mai ƙarfi akan ikon polymer na samar da lu'ulu'u.

Mai haɓaka Ziegler-Natta yana iya ƙuntata danganta ƙwayoyin monomer zuwa takamaiman daidaitaccen tsari na yau da kullun, ko dai isotactic, lokacin da duk ƙungiyoyin methyl suka kasance a gefe ɗaya dangane da kashin bayan sarkar polymer, ko syndiotactic, lokacin da matsayin na metungiyoyin methyl madadin. Ana samar da polypropylene mai isotactic tare da nau'ikan kayan haɓaka biyu na Ziegler-Natta. Rukuni na farko na masu kara kuzari sun hada da masu kara kuzari (akasari masu goyan baya) da wasu nau'ikan abubuwa masu narkewar karfe. Irin wannan ƙwaƙƙwarar macromolecules yana haɗuwa cikin sifa mai ƙira; wadannan jirage masu saukar ungulu sannan suyi layi kusa da juna don samar da lu'ulu'u wanda ke ba da polypropylene na kasuwanci da yawa daga kyawawan kaddarorin sa.

Wata nau'ikan masu samar da ƙarfe na karfe suna samar da syndiotactic polypropylene. Waɗannan ƙwayoyin macromolecules suna haɗuwa cikin helices (wani nau'in daban) kuma suna samar da samfuran kayan lu'ulu'u.

Lokacin da ƙungiyoyin methyl a cikin sarkar polypropylene ba su nuna daidaituwa ba, ana kiran polymer atactic. Atactic polypropylene abu ne na amorphous rubbery. Ana iya samar da shi ta kasuwanci ko dai tare da nau'in musamman na mai taimakawa Ziegler-Natta mai kara kuzari ko kuma tare da wasu masu samar da abubuwan ƙarfe.

Ziegler-Natta da aka ba da tallafi na zamani wanda aka kirkira don samar da polypy na propylene da sauran 1-alkenes zuwa polymers isotactic yawanci ana amfani dashi TiCl
4
azaman sashi mai aiki da MgCl
2
a matsayin tallafi. Har ila yau, masu haɓaka suna ƙunshe da masu gyaran ƙwayoyin cuta, ko dai aromatic acid esters da diesters ko ethers. Wadannan masu haɓaka suna aiki tare da takaddama na musamman masu ɗauke da mahaɗin kwayoyin halitta kamar Al (C2H5)3 da kuma nau’i na biyu na mai gyara. Hanyoyin ba da bambance-bambancen sun bambanta dangane da hanyar da ake amfani da su don yin ɗamarar kayan ƙira daga MgCl2 kuma ya danganta da nau'ikan masu gyaran ƙwayoyin halitta waɗanda ake amfani da su yayin shirya kara kuzari da amfani a cikin halayen polymerization. Abubuwa biyu mafi mahimmancin fasaha na duk masu tallafi masu tallafi sune haɓaka mai yawa kuma babban ɓangare na ƙarafan isotactic polymer da suke samarwa a 70-80 ° C ƙarƙashin ƙayyadaddun yanayin polymerization. Yin hada-hadar kasuwanci na ispactic polypropylene yawanci ana aiwatar dashi ko dai a matsakaicin matsakaicin ruwa propylene ko kuma a cikin gas-phase reactors.

Tsarin ƙira-da-itace na polypropylene syndiotactic

Ana aiwatar da haɗin gwiwar kasuwanci na syndiotactic polypropylene tare da yin amfani da aji na musamman na abubuwan kara kuzari na karfe. Sunyi amfani da hadadden bishi-ironlocene na gada irin (Cp1) (Cp2) ZrCl2 inda Cp ligand na farko shine rukunin cyclopentadienyl, na biyu na Cp ligand shine ƙungiyar fluorenyl, kuma gada tsakanin cp ligands biyu shine -CH2-CH2-,> SiMe2, ko> SiPh2. Waɗannan hadaddun suna canzawa zuwa haɓaka haɓakar polymerization ta kunna su tare da mai haɗin kwayar halitta ta musamman, methylaluminoxane (MAO).

Tsarin masana'antu

A bisa ga al'ada, hanyoyin masana'antu guda uku sune hanyoyi mafi wakilci don samar da polypropylene.

Hydrocarbon slurry ko dakatarwa: Yana amfani da ruwa mai incel hydrocarbon dilimin a cikin mashin don sauƙaƙe canja wurin propylene ga mai kara kuzari, cire zafin wuta daga tsarin, lalata / cire mai kara kumburi gami da narkewar atomatic polymer. Yankunan maki da za a iya samarwa suna da iyaka. (Fasahar ta fada cikin rikici).

Kauka (ko mafi yawa slurry): Yana amfani da propylene na ruwa maimakon ruwa insol hydrocarbon dilinent. Polymer baya narkewa cikin tsarke, amma yana hawa kan propylene na ruwa. Polymer din da aka kirkira an cire shi kuma duk wani monomer wanda bashi da dangantaka da zai fashe.

Tsarin Gas: Yana amfani da profflene na mai magana da gasa tare da mai samar da kuzari, wanda yake haifar da matsakaiciyar gado.

Manufacturing

Za'a iya cimma tsarin narkewar polypropylene ta hanyar cirewa kuma gyare-gyaren. Hanyoyin cire abubuwa na yau da kullun sun haɗa da samar da dunƙulen hura wuta da spun-bond fibers don samar da dogayen Rolls don juyawa ta gaba zuwa samfuran samfuran amfani masu yawa, irin su fuskoki masu fuska, abubuwan tacewa, goge goge da shafe-shafe.

Mafi kyawun tsarin gyaran fuska shine gyare-gyare injection, wanda ake amfani dashi ga sassan kamar kofuna, koran gero, vials, makulli, kwantena, kayan gida, da kuma sassan motoci kamar batir. Hanyoyin dabarun haɗin gwiwa na busa ƙa'idar da kuma allura-mai shimfiɗa busawa ana kuma amfani da su, wanda ya unshi duka biyu sura da gyaggyarawa.

Babban adadin aikace-aikacen ƙarshen amfani da polypropylene koyaushe yana yiwuwa saboda ikon daidaita ƙirar maki tare da takamaiman abubuwan ƙirar kwayoyin halitta da ƙari a lokacin samarwa. Misali, ana iya kara wasu abubuwa masu guba don taimakawa polypropylene saman hanyoyin tsayayya da kura da datti. Hakanan za'a iya amfani da yawancin fasahohin gama jiki na jiki akan polypropylene, kamar injin. Ana iya amfani da jiyya na jijiya a sassan polypropylene don inganta adhesion na tawada da paints.

Kasuwancin da ke da fa'idar Biafara da keɓaɓɓu (BOPP)

Lokacin da polypropylene fim aka extruded da kuma miƙa a duka biyu na shugabanci na inji da kuma a fadin shugaban injin da ake kira polypropylene mai daidaituwa na biaxially. Nunin Biaxial yana ƙaruwa da ƙarfi. Ana amfani da BOPP sosai azaman kayan tattarawa don kayayyakin tattarawa kamar abinci na ciye-ciye, kayan masarufi da kayan kwalliya. Abu ne mai sauƙi ga gashi, ɗab'i da kwanciya don ba da bayyanar da ake buƙata da kaddarorin don amfani azaman kayan tattarawa. Wannan tsari ana kiransa ana ta juyawa. Ana yin kullun a cikin manyan Rolls waɗanda suke narkar da injin slitting zuwa cikin kananan Rolls don amfani dasu a kan injunan marufi.

Haɓaka haɓaka

Tare da haɓaka matakin aikin da ake buƙata don ingancin polypropylene a cikin 'yan shekarun nan, an sami ra'ayoyi da sharaɗi iri-iri a cikin aikin samar da polypropylene.

Akwai kusan hanyoyi biyu don takamammen hanyoyin. Isayan shine inganta daidaituwa na ɗimbin ƙwayoyin zarra ɗin polymer waɗanda aka samar ta amfani da nau'in samarwa na jini, ɗayan kuma shine haɓaka daidaituwa tsakanin ƙwayoyin polymer waɗanda aka samar ta hanyar amfani da samarwa tare da taƙaitaccen lokacin riƙewa.

Aikace-aikace

Polypropylene murfin akwatin Tic Tacs, tare da rami mai rai da kuma alamar lambar resin a ƙarƙashin layin dibarsa

Kamar yadda polypropylene ke tsayayya da gajiya, yawancin rayayyun filastik, kamar waɗannan akan kwalaben saman, ana yin su daga wannan kayan. Koyaya, yana da mahimmanci a tabbatar cewa chainan sarkar ori wayoyin sun jawo hanun acrossarfin hular don haɓaka ƙarfin.

Ana amfani da takaddun siraran sirarai (~ 2-20 µm) na polypropylene a matsayin masu amfani da wutar lantarki a cikin matsakaiciyar bugun jini da karfin asara masu ƙarfin RF.

Ana amfani da polypropylene a cikin tsarin piping masana'antu; duk wadanda suka damu da tsarkin gaske da kuma wadanda aka tsara don karfi da tsauri (misali wadanda aka yi niyyar amfani dasu a aikin diban ruwan famfo, dumama ruwan sanyi da sanyaya, da sake kwato ruwa). Wannan kayan ana zaba shi sau da yawa don juriyarsa ga lalata da lalata sinadarai, juriyarsa ga mafi yawan nau'ikan lalacewar jiki, gami da tasiri da daskarewa, fa'idodin muhalli, da ikon haɗuwa da haɗakar zafi maimakon liƙawa.

Yawancin abubuwa na filastik don amfani da likita ko amfani da dakin gwaje-gwaje ana iya yin su daga polypropylene saboda yana iya tsayayya da zafi a cikin autoclave. Juriyarsa mai zafi yana ba da damar amfani dashi azaman kayan masana'antar kettles masu amfani da kayan masarufi. Kwantena na abinci wanda aka yi da shi bazai narke a cikin gidan abinci ba, kuma kada ku narke yayin ayyukan cike kayan abinci mai zafi. A saboda wannan dalili, yawancin tubalin filastik don samfuran kiwo sune polypropylene da aka rufe tare da tsare aluminium (duka kayan da ke jure zafi). Bayan samfurin ya sanyaya, yawanci ana ba bututu waɗanda aka yi da kayan wuta mai ƙoshin wuta, kamar LDPE ko polystyrene. Irin waɗannan kwantena suna ba da kyawawan hannayen hannu-misali na bambanci a cikin modulus, tunda ƙyallen (mafi m, mafi sassauƙa) jin LDPE tare da girmamawa ga polypropylene na kauri ɗaya. Rugged, translucent, kayan kwalliyar filastik wanda aka sake amfani dashi a fannoni daban-daban masu girma da kuma girma ga masu amfani daga kamfanoni daban-daban kamar su Rubbermaid da Sterilite ana yin su ne ta polypropylene, kodayake kullun suna sanya ƙananan LDPE mai sauƙin sassauci don haka zasu iya kama hannun zuwa ga kwandon rufe shi. Hakanan ana iya yin polypropylene cikin kwalaben da za'a iya zubar dashi don ɗaukar ruwa, kayan abinci, ko samfuran masu amfani, kodayake ana amfani da HDPE da polyethylene terephthalate don yin kwalban. Batun filastik, batirin mota, kayan kwalliya, kwalayen kantin magani, kantuna mai sanyaya abinci, kwano da kwastomomi galibi ana yin su da polypropylene ko HDPE, duka biyun suna da kama kama, ji, da kaddarorin a zazzabi na yanayi.

Kujerar polypropylene

Aikace-aikacen gama gari don polypropylene kamar polypropylene ne mai zuwa da keɓaɓɓu (BOPP). Ana amfani da waɗannan zanen gado na BOPP don yin kayayyaki da yawa ciki har da jaka mai haske. Lokacin da polypropylene ke fuskantar orixially, yana zama mai haske sosai kuma yana zama kyakkyawan kayan tattara kayan kwalliya don kayan zane da kuma kayayyakin sayarwa.

Polypropylene, mai launi mai launi sosai, ana amfani dashi sosai wajen kera katako, katako da layu don amfani dasu a gida.

An yi amfani da polypropylene a cikin igiyoyi, rarrabe saboda suna da haske isa yawo cikin ruwa. Don daidaitaccen taro da gini, igiyar polypropylene daidai take da ƙarfi zuwa igiyar polyester. Propylene yana cin kuɗi ƙasa da yawancin sauran ƙwayoyin roba.

Hakanan ana amfani da polypropylene azaman madadin don polyvinyl chloride (PVC) azaman ruɓi don igiyoyi na lantarki don kebul na LSZH a cikin yanayin ƙarancin iska, da farko tasoshin. Wannan saboda yana haifar da ƙarancin hayaki kuma babu halogens mai guba, wanda zai haifar da haifar da acid a cikin yanayin zafin jiki mai zafi.

Hakanan ana amfani da polypropylene musamman membranes na rufin gida kamar yadda ake hana ruwa tsabtataccen tsarin abubuwa guda-biyu kamar yadda yake tsayayya da tsarin bit-bit.

Ana amfani da polypropylene mafi yawan lokuta don masana'anta na filastik, a ciki ana allurar dashi a cikin murfin yayin gwal, yana samar da fasali mai rikitarwa a cikin farashi mai araha da ƙima mai yawa; misalai sun hada da firam na kwalba, kwalabe, da kayan masarufi.

Hakanan za'a iya samar dashi a cikin takarda, ana amfani dashi ko'ina don samar da manyan fayilolin kayan rubutu, marufi, da akwatunan ajiya. Matsakaicin launi mai launi, karko, tsada mai tsada, da juriya da datti ya sa ya zama madaidaiciya azaman murfin kariya ga takardu da sauran kayan aiki. Ana amfani dashi a cikin Rubik's Cube lambobi saboda waɗannan halayen.

Samun takardar polypropylene ya ba da damar amfani da kayan ta hanyar masu zanen kaya. Haske mai-nauyi, mai dorewa, da kuma filastik mai launi suna sanya madaidaicin matsakaici don ƙirƙirar inuwar haske, kuma an samar da kayayyaki da yawa ta amfani da sassan layi don ƙirƙirar zane mai faɗi.

Zanen gado na polypropylene zabi ne sananne ga masu karban katin karbar kudi; waɗannan sun zo tare da aljihuna (tara don katunan daidaitacce) don saka katunan kuma ana amfani dasu don kare yanayin su kuma ana nufin za a adana su a cikin ragon wuta.

Abubuwan polypropylene don amfani da dakin gwaje-gwaje, rufewar shuɗi da ruwan lemo ba na polypropylene ba

Faɗin polypropylene (EPP) wani nau'i ne na kumburi na polypropylene. EPP tana da halaye masu tasiri sosai saboda ƙanƙantarsa; wannan yana ba EPP damar sake ci gaba da kamanta bayan tasirin. Ana amfani da EPP sosai a cikin jirgin sama samfurin da sauran motocin da aka sarrafa na rediyo ta hanyar masu ba da sha'awa. Wannan ya kasance saboda ikonsa ne don ɗaukar tasirin, yana mai da wannan babban abun don jirgin RC don masu farawa da masu ba da izini.

Ana amfani da polypropylene a cikin kerar naurorin lasifika. Injiniyoyin BBC ne suka fara amfani da shi da kuma haƙƙin haƙƙin mallaka wanda Ofishin Lantarki na Ofishin Jakadancin ya saya daga baya don amfani da shi a cikin lasisin lasisin su na Freedom Freedom da lasifika 737 Renaissance.

Ana amfani da zaren polypropylene azaman ƙari don ƙara ƙarfi da rage fashewa da fantsama. A cikin yankunan da ke iya fuskantar girgizar kasa, watau, California, ana kara zaren PP tare da kasa don inganta kasa da damina yayin gina harsashin gine-gine kamar su gine-gine, gadoji, da sauransu.

Ana amfani da polypropylene a cikin daruruwan polypropylene.

Clothing

Polypropylene shine babban polymer da ake amfani dashi a cikin nonwovens, tare da sama da 50% ana amfani dashi don diapers ko kayayyakin tsafta inda ake kula dashi domin shan ruwa (hydrophilic) maimakon tsaftace ruwa (hydrophobic). Sauran abubuwan ban sha'awa wadanda ba'a saka su ba sun hada da filtattun iska, gas, da ruwa wanda za'a iya hada zaruruwa zuwa zanen gado ko shafukan yanar gizo wadanda za a iya farantawa su kirkiri harsashi ko yadudduka wadanda suke tace abubuwa daban-daban a cikin zangon micrometre na 0.5 zuwa 30. Irin waɗannan aikace-aikacen suna faruwa ne a cikin gidaje kamar matatun ruwa ko kuma a cikin nau'ikan matattarar iska. Babban fili da kuma dabi'un halittar polypropylene mara kyawu suna da cikakkiyar masaniyar zubewar mai tare da sanannun shingen dake iyo kusa da malalar mai akan koguna.

An yi amfani da polypropylene, ko 'polypro', don ƙirƙirar ɗakunan tushe na lokacin sanyi, kamar su rigunan hannu masu dogon hannu ko dogon tufafi. Hakanan ana amfani da polypropylene a cikin tufafin yanayi mai dumi, inda yake safarar gumi daga fata. Kwanan nan, polyester ya maye gurbin polypropylene a cikin waɗannan aikace-aikace a cikin rundunar sojan Amurka, kamar a Farashin ECWCS. Kodayake tufafin polypropylene ba sa saurin saurin kamawa da wuta, amma suna iya narkewa, wanda hakan na iya haifar da mummunan kuna idan mai sanya shi ya shiga cikin fashewa ko gobara ko wacce iri. Abubuwan sutturar polypropylene an san su don riƙe warin jiki wanda ke da wahalar cirewa. Gwanin polyester na yanzu bashi da wannan rashin fa'ida.

Wasu masu zanen kaya sun sa polypropylene sun dace don kera kayan kwalliya da sauran kayan kwalliya.

Medical

Amfani da ya zama na yau da kullun yana cikin aikin roba, sutturbable suture Prolene.

Anyi amfani da polypropylene a cikin hernia da pelvic organ prolapse gyara ayyukan don kare jiki daga sabon hernias a cikin wannan wuri. An sanya karamin facin kayan a saman tabargaren hernia, a kasa da fata, kuma ba shi da ciwo kuma da wuya, idan jiki ya ƙi shi. Koyaya, babban murfin polypropylene zai lalata naman da ke kewaye da shi tsawon lokacin da bai tabbata ba daga ranakun zuwa shekaru. Saboda haka, FDA ta ba da gargadi da yawa game da amfani da kayan aikin likita na polypropylene don wasu aikace-aikace a cikin ƙashin ƙugu na ƙashin ƙugu, musamman lokacin da aka gabatar da kusanci zuwa bango na farji saboda ci gaba da ƙaruwa da yawan ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta da ke motsa jiki wanda aka ruwaito ta hanyar marasa lafiya. cikin 'yan shekarun da suka gabata. Mafi kwanan nan, a ranar 3 Janairu 2012, FDA ta umarci masana'antun 35 na waɗannan samfuran raga don yin nazarin tasirin waɗannan na'urori.

Da farko an yi la'akari da inert, an gano polypropylene yana lalata yayin da yake cikin jiki. Abubuwan da ke lalata da ƙazanta suna samar da kamar kwandon haushi a kan ƙwayoyin raga kuma yana iya kusan fashewa.

Jirgin samfurin EPP

Tun shekara ta 2001, kumburin polypropylene (EPP) da aka faɗaɗa yana ta shahara da kuma amfani dashi azaman kayan ƙira a cikin jirgin kula da rediyo mai sha'awa. Sabanin kumburin polystyrene (EPS) wanda yake da saurin lalacewa kuma yana saurin lalacewa, kumfar EPP tana iya ɗaukar tasirin kwayoyi sosai ba tare da karyewa ba, yana riƙe da asalin su, kuma yana nuna halayen ƙirar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya wanda zai bashi damar komawa zuwa asalin sa a cikin gajeren lokaci. A sakamakon haka, samfurin sarrafa rediyo wanda aka gina fikafikansa da fuselage daga kumfa na EPP yana da matukar juriya, kuma yana iya shan tasirin da zai haifar da lalacewar samfuran da aka yi daga kayan gargajiya, kamar balsa ko ma kumfa na EPS. Misalan EPP, lokacin da aka rufe su da kyallen gilashi mai rahusa waɗanda ke ɗauke da kaset masu ɗaure kai, galibi suna nuna ƙarfin ƙarfe da yawa, tare da haɗin haske da farfajiyar sama waɗanda ke hamayya da waɗancan samfuran abubuwan da aka ambata a sama. EPP kuma yana da ƙarfi sosai, yana ba da izinin amfani da nau'ikan manne daban-daban. EPP na iya zama zafin rana, kuma za a iya kammala saman a sauƙaƙe tare da amfani da kayan aiki na yankan da takaddun abrasive. Manyan yankunan ƙirar ƙira wanda EPP ta sami karɓar karɓa sosai sune filayen:

  • Masu saurin sauka daga kan iska
  • Tsarin lantarki mai amfani da kayan lantarki na cikin gida
  • Hannun launchedan sanda sun ƙaddamar da ƙananan lan ƙananan yara

A fagen hawa gangare, EPP ya sami babban tagomashi da amfani, saboda yana ba da izinin ginin gwanayen samfurin rediyo masu ƙarfin gaske da motsi. A sakamakon haka, lamuran gwagwarmaya (tsarin aiki na abokan hamayyar abokantaka da ke ƙoƙarin fidda jirgin sama daga iska ta hanyar tuntuɓar kai tsaye) da tseren pylon tsere sun zama gama gari, sakamakon halayen ƙarfi na kayan EPP.

Ginin gini

Lokacin da babban cocin a Tenerife, La Laguna Cathedral, aka gyara a cikin 2002 zuwa 2014, ya zama cewa katako da dome suna cikin mummunan yanayin. Sabili da haka, waɗannan sassan ginin sun rushe, kuma an maye gurbinsu da abubuwan ginawa a cikin polypropylene. An ba da rahoton wannan a matsayin farkon lokacin da aka yi amfani da wannan kayan a cikin wannan sikelin a cikin gine-gine.

sake amfani

Polypropylene za'a sake yin amfani dashi kuma yana da lambar "5" a matsayin ta guduro lambar tantancewa.

Sauyawa

Abubuwa da yawa ana yin su da polypropylene daidai saboda yana da ƙarfi da juriya ga yawancin ƙarfi da gyada. Hakanan, akwai fewan adadin glues da aka samo musamman don gluing PP. Koyaya, abubuwa masu PP mara ƙima da baza su iya canzawa ba za'a iya haɗasu da gamsarwa tare da giya biyu na man gas ko kuma amfani da bindigogi masu dumin wuta. Shiri yana da mahimmanci kuma yana da sau da yawa taimaka roughen farfajiya tare da fayil, takarda Emery ko wasu kayan ɓoye don samar da mafi kyawu don manne. Hakanan ana bada shawara don tsabtace tare da ruhohin ma'adinai ko irin barasa kafin gluing don cire kowane mai ko wasu gurɓatar. Ana iya buƙatar wasu gwaji. Hakanan akwai wasu glues na masana'antu don PP, amma waɗannan na iya zama da wahalar samu, musamman a cikin kantin sayar da kayayyaki.

Ana iya narkar da PP ta amfani da dabarar walda da sauri. Tare da walda da sauri, walda na filastik, kwatankwacin baƙin ƙarfe a bayyane da wattage, an saka masa bututun abinci don sandar walda na filastik. Gudun gudu yana zafin sanda da substrate, yayin kuma a lokaci guda yana matsa narkakken sandar weld cikin wuri. An saka dutsen ado na laushi mai laushi a cikin haɗin, kuma sassan da sandar walda na walda. Tare da polypropylene, dole ne a “gauraya sandar walda mai narkewa” tare da kera ko gyara kayan ginshikin da aka narkar da su. Gudun gudu “bindiga” da gaske shine baƙin ƙarfe mai walƙiya tare da faɗi mai faɗi, mai faɗi wanda za'a iya amfani dashi don narke haɗin walda da kayan filler don ƙirƙirar haɗin gwiwa.

Damuwa da lafiya

Workingungiyar Aikin Muhalli ta rarraba PP a matsayin ƙananan haɗari zuwa matsakaici. PP yana da launi mai launi, ba a amfani da ruwa a rinin sa, sabanin auduga.

A shekara ta 2008, masu bincike a Kanada sun tabbatar da cewa kwayar halittar ammonium ta biocides da oleamide suna ficewa daga wasu kayan aikin polypropylene, suna shafar sakamakon gwaji. Kamar yadda ake amfani da polypropylene a cikin kwantena na abinci da yawa kamar na yogurt, mai magana da yawun kafofin watsa labarai na Kiran lafiya Paul Duchesne ya ce sashen zai yi nazarin binciken ne domin sanin ko akwai bukatar matakai don kare masu cin abincin.


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