ISO

by / Jumma'a, 25 Maris 2016 / Aka buga a Standards

Matsayi na Kasa da sauran wallafe-wallafe

Babban kayayyakin ISO sune ƙa'idodin duniya. ISO kuma yana wallafa rahotanni na fasaha, ƙayyadaddun fasaha, wadatattun bayanai na fili, corrigenda na fasaha, da jagororin.

Ka'idojin kasa da kasa
An tsara waɗannan ta amfani da tsarin ISO [/ IEC] [/ ASTM] [IS] nnnnn [-p]: [yyyy] Take, inda nnnn shine lambar daidaitaccen, p lambar zaɓi ce, yyyy shine shekarar da aka buga, kuma Title ya bayyana batun. IEC domin Hukumar Kasuwanci ta Duniya an haɗa shi idan daidaitaccen sakamako daga aikin ISO / IEC JTC1 (Kwamitin Fasaha na ISO / IEC). ASTM (Societyungiyar Jama'a ta Amurka don Gwaji da Kayayyaki) ana amfani da su don matsayin da aka inganta tare da haɗin gwiwa tare da ASTM International. yyyy da kuma IS ba a amfani da su don ƙimar da ba ta cika ba ko kuma ba za a iya amfani da ita ba kuma a wasu yanayi za a iya barin taken aikin da aka buga.
Rahoton fasaha
Ana bayar da waɗannan lokacin da kwamiti na fasaha ko ƙaramin kwamiti ya tattara bayanai na daban da wanda aka saba bugawa azaman Matsayi na Duniya, kamar nassoshi da bayani. Yarjejeniyar sanya suna don waɗannan daidai suke da ƙa'idodi, banda TR wanda aka shirya shi maimakon IS a cikin sunan rahoton.
Misali:
  • ISO / IEC TR 17799: Lambar Aikin 2000 don Gudanar da Tsaro na Tsaro
  • ISO / TR 19033: 2000 Takaddun samfur na fasaha - Metadata don takaddun gini
Bayani na fasaha da na jama'a a bayyane
Za a iya samar da takamaiman bayanan fasaha yayin da "batun da ake magana a kai har yanzu ana kan ci gaba ko kuma inda wani dalili ya sa a gaba amma ba yuwuwar yarjejeniya ba nan take don buga Tsarin Duniya" Samfurin da ake samu a fili galibi “matsakaiciyar bayani ne, wanda aka buga kafin ci gaban cikakkiyar Standardasa ta Duniya, ko kuma, a cikin IEC na iya zama buga 'tambari biyu' wanda aka buga tare da haɗin gwiwar ƙungiyar waje". Ta hanyar taron, ana ba da sunayen nau'ikan nau'ikan bayanai iri biyu daidai da rahotonnin fasaha na kungiyar.
Misali:
  • ISO / TS 16952-1: 2006 Rubutun samfurin fasaha - Tsarin ƙirar tunani - Sashe na 1: Dokokin aikace-aikacen gabaɗaya
  • ISO / PAS 11154: 2006 Motocin titi - Masu ɗaukar kaya masu saukar ungulu
Corrigenda na fasaha
ISO kuma wani lokacin yakan fito da “corrigenda na fasaha” (inda “corrigenda” shine jam’in corrigendum). Waɗannan gyare-gyare ne da aka yi wa ƙa'idodin da ke kasancewa saboda ƙananan raunin fasaha, haɓakar amfani, ko ƙarancin amfani da kari. Gabaɗaya ana bayar da su tare da tsammanin za a sabunta ko kuma za a janye matsayin da abin ya shafa a bitar da za a shirya ta gaba.
Jagororin ISO

Waɗannan matakan ƙa'idodi ne waɗanda ke ɗauke da "al'amuran da suka danganci daidaitawar duniya". An kira su ta amfani da tsari “ISO [/ IEC] Jagora N: yyyy: Take”.
Misali:

  • ISO / IEC Guide 2: 2004 Tsarin daidaituwa da ayyukan da suka shafi aiki - Kalmomin janar
  • ISO / IEC Jagora 65: 1996 Abubuwan da ake buƙata gaba ɗaya don jikin hukumomin da ke ba da takardar shaida samfurin

Standarda'idar da ISO / IEC ta buga shine mataki na ƙarshe na tsari mai tsawo wanda yawanci yake farawa tare da gabatar da sabbin ayyuka a cikin kwamiti. Anan ga wasu gajerun bayanan da akayi amfani dasu don yiwa alama alama tare da matsayin sa:

  • PWI - Abubuwan Aiki Na Farko
  • NP ko NWIP - Sabon samarwa / Sabon Tsarin Abubuwan Aiki (misali, ISO / IEC NP 23007)
  • AWI - Amincewa da sabon Abubuwan Aiki (misali, ISO / IEC AWI 15444-14)
  • WD - Draft na aiki (misali, ISO / IEC WD 27032)
  • CD - Rubutun Kwamitin (misali, ISO / IEC CD 23000-5)
  • FCD - Tsarin Kwamitin (arshe (misali, ISO / IEC FCD 23000-12)
  • DIS - Tsarin ftaƙwalwar Kasa da Kasa (misali, ISO / IEC DIS 14297)
  • FDIS - Standarda'idodin Tsarin Finalasashen waje na ƙarshe (misali, ISO / IEC FDIS 27003)
  • PRF - Tabbacin sabuwar Standardasassun Duniya (misali, ISO / IEC PRF 18018)
  • IS - International Standard (misali, ISO / IEC 13818-1: 2007)

Rokodin amfani da gyara

  • NP Amd - Sabon Sauye Tsarin (misali, ISO / IEC 15444-2: 2004 / NP Amd 3)
  • AWI Amd - Amincewa da sabon Tsarin Abubuwan Aiki (eg, ISO / IEC 14492: 2001 / AWI Amd 4)
  • WD Amd - Amincewa daftarin Aiki na aiki (misali, ISO 11092: 1993 / WD Amd 1)
  • CD Amd / PDAmd - Shirya Tsarin Tsarin Gudanarwa / Kundin Tsarin Mulki wanda aka gabatar (misali, ISO / IEC 13818-1: 2007 / CD Amd 6)
  • FPDAmd / DAM (DAmd) - Gyara Tsarin Tsarin Shirye-shiryen Karshe / Tsarin Tsarin (Misali, ISO / IEC 14496-14: 2003 / FPDAmd 1)
  • FDAM (FDAmd) - Gyara Tsarin Tsarin Karshe (misali, ISO / IEC 13818-1: 2007 / FDAmd 4)
  • PRF Amd - (misali, ISO 12639: 2004 / PRF Amd 1)
  • Amd - Sauya (misali, ISO / IEC 13818-1: 2007 / Amd 1: 2007)

Sauran raguwa:

  • TR - Rahoton fasaha (misali, ISO / IEC TR 19791: 2006)
  • DTR - Rahoton Fitar da Ficewa (misali, ISO / IEC DTR 19791)
  • TS - Bayanai na Fasaha (misali, ISO / TS 16949: 2009)
  • DTS - Siffar Bayanai na fasaha (eg, ISO / DTS 11602-1)
  • PAS - Bayanai na Jama'a
  • TTA - Gwajin Kasuwancin Fasaha (misali, ISO / TTA 1: 1994)
  • IWA - Yarjejeniyar Taron Kasa da Kasa (misali, IWA 1: 2005)
  • Cor - Corrigendum na fasaha (misali, ISO / IEC 13818-1: 2007 / Cor 1: 2008)
  • Jagora - jagora ga kwamitocin fasaha don shirye-shiryen ka'idodi

Asashen Duniya suna haɓaka ta kwamitocin fasaha na ISO (TC) da ƙananan kwamitoci (SC) ta hanyar aiwatar da matakai shida:

  • Mataki na 1: Mataki na Gabatarwa
  • Mataki na 2: Tsarin shiri
  • Mataki na 3: Matakin kwamitin
  • Mataki na 4: Tsananin bincike
  • Mataki na 5: Tsarin amincewa
  • Mataki na 6: Mataki na gaban jama'a

TC / SC na iya saitawa kungiyoyin aiki (WG) na kwararru domin shirye shiryen aiwatar da aiki. Membobin kwamitocin na iya samun kungiyoyin aiki da yawa, wadanda za su iya samun Rukunin Kungiyoyi da dama (SG).

Matsayi a cikin aikin ci gaba na ƙirar ISO
Mataki na lamba horo Sunan daftarin aiki mai aiki gajartatattun
  • description
  • Notes
00 Premier Abubuwan aikin farko PWI
10 shawara Sabuwar kayan aiki
  • NP ko NWIP
  • NP Amd / TR / TS / IWA
20 Shirye-shirye Tsarin aiki ko daftarin aiki
  • AWI
  • AWI Amd / TR / TS
  • WD
  • WD Amd / TR / TS
30 Kwamitin Daftarin kwamiti
  • CD
  • CD Amd / Cor / TR / TS
  • PDAmd (PDAM)
  • Farashin PDTR
  • Farashin PDTS
40 Enquiry Binciken daftarin aiki
  • dis
  • Farashin FCD
  • FPDAmd
  • DAMD (DAM)
  • FPDISP
  • DTR
  • DTS
(CDV a cikin IEC)
50 yabo Tsarin karshe
  • FDIS
  • FDAmd (FDAM)
  • PRF
  • PRF Amd / TTA / TR / TS / Suppl
  • Farashin FDTR
60 Littattafai da Kasa da Kasa
  • ISO
  • TR
  • TS
  • Iwa
  • Amd
  • Cor
90 review
95 Sauyawa

Zai yiwu a bar wasu matakai, idan akwai takaddama tare da takamaiman matakin balaga a farkon aikin daidaitawa, misali misali wanda wata ƙungiya ta haɓaka. Dokokin ISO / IEC sun ba da izinin abin da ake kira “Hanyar saurin-sauri”. A cikin wannan aikin an gabatar da takaddar kai tsaye don amincewa a matsayin daftarin Tsarin Duniya (DIS) ga mambobin membobin ISO ko azaman ƙirar ƙarshe na Standardasa ta Duniya (FDIS) idan ƙungiyar ta daidaita ta ƙasa ta inganta ta ta hanyar Majalisar ISO.

Mataki na farko - an amince da shawarar aiki (Sabuwar Ba da Shawara) a kwamitin da ya dace ko kwamitin fasaha (misali, SC29 da JTC1 daidai da batun inungiyar Experwararrun Picturewararrun --aura - ISO / IEC JTC1 / SC29 / WG11). TC / SC ta kafa ƙungiyar masu aiki (WG) ta ƙwararru don shirya daftarin aiki. Lokacin da fa'idar sabon aiki ya bayyana sosai, wasu daga cikin kungiyoyin aiki (misali, MPEG) galibi suna gabatar da buqatar neman shawarwari-wanda aka fi sani da “kira don bada shawarwari”. Takarda ta farko da aka samar misali don ƙididdigar lambar sauti da bidiyo ana kiranta samfurin tabbaci (VM) (wanda a baya ake kira "samfurin kwafi da gwajin"). Lokacin da aka sami isasshen tabbaci game da kwanciyar hankali na daidaitaccen yanayin ci gaba, ana samar da daftarin aiki (WD). Wannan yana cikin sifa ce amma ana ajiye ta cikin ƙungiyar aiki don sake dubawa. Lokacin da daftarin aiki ya kasance cikakke sosai kuma ƙungiyar masu aiki ta gamsu cewa ta samar da mafi kyawun hanyar fasaha don matsalar da ake magana akai, sai ta zama daftarin kwamiti (CD). Idan ana buƙata, to sai a aika wa membobin P-membobin TC / SC (ƙungiyoyin ƙasa) don zaɓar.

CD ɗin ya zama daftarin kwamiti na ƙarshe (FCD) idan adadin ƙuri'u masu ƙima sun kasance sama da adadin. Za'a iya yin la'akari da abubuwan da aka tsara na kwamiti masu zuwa har sai an cimma yarjejeniya akan abubuwan fasaha. Lokacin da aka kai ta, an kammala rubutun don ƙaddamarwa azaman daftarin Tsarin Duniya (DIS). Daga nan sai a gabatar da rubutun ga hukumomin kasa don kada kuri'a da yin sharhi a tsakanin watanni biyar. An yarda da ƙaddamarwa a matsayin ƙira na Standardarshe na Internationalasa (FDIS) idan kashi biyu cikin uku na mambobin P-membobin TC / SC sun goyi bayan kuma ba fiye da kashi ɗaya cikin huɗu na yawan ƙuri'un da aka kaɗa ba. Bayan haka ISO za ta gudanar da kuri'a tare da Hukumomin Kasa inda ba a ba da izinin canje-canje na fasaha ba (Ee / a'a), a tsakanin watanni biyu. An amince da shi azaman Matsayi na Duniya (IS) idan kashi biyu cikin uku na mambobin P-membobin TC / SC suna goyon baya kuma bai fi kashi ɗaya cikin huɗu na yawan ƙuri'un da aka kaɗa ba. Bayan amincewa, ƙananan canje-canjen edita ne kawai aka gabatar cikin rubutun ƙarshe. Ana aika rubutu na ƙarshe zuwa Babban Sakataren ISO, wanda ke buga shi azaman Tsarin Duniya.


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