Tsarin duniya

by / Jumma'a, 17 Maris 2017 / Aka buga a Kayan lantarki & Injin

A cikin shigarwa na lantarki ko tsarin wutar lantarki an tsarin ƙasa or tsarin ƙasa yana haɗa takamaiman sassan wannan shigarwa tare da yanayin aikin duniya don aminci da dalilan aiki. Batun ishara shine yanayin tafiyar da Duniya, ko akan jirgi, saman teku. Zaɓin tsarin ƙasa zai iya shafar aminci da haɗin lantarki na shigarwa. Dokoki don tsarin ƙasa sun bambanta sosai tsakanin ƙasashe da tsakanin sassa daban-daban na tsarin lantarki, kodayake mutane da yawa suna bin shawarwarin Hukumar Electasa ta Duniya da aka bayyana a ƙasa.

Wannan labarin kawai ya shafi tushen wutar lantarki. Misalai na sauran tsarin tsarin ƙasa suna jera a ƙasa tare da hanyoyin haɗin labarai:

  • Don kare tsari daga yajin aiki, kai tsaye walƙiya ta cikin tsarin ƙasa da cikin sandar ƙasa maimakon wucewa cikin ginin.
  • A zaman ɓangare na waya ɗaya-waya mai dawowa da layin sigina, kamar waɗanda aka yi amfani da su don ƙaddamar da wutar lantarki watatt low kuma wayoyin layin waya.
  • A rediyo, azaman jirgin sama don manyan eriya-dako.
  • A matsayin daidaita karfin wutan lantarki na sauran nau'ikan eriya na rediyo, kamar dipoles.
  • Kamar yadda ciyarwar take a saman eriyar ƙasa maimakon VLF da ELF rediyo.

Makasudin bazuwar lantarki

M duniya

A Burtaniya "Earthing" shine haɗin sassan da aka fallasa wadanda aka girka ta hanyar masu kula masu kariya zuwa ga "babbar tashar kasa", wacce aka hada ta da wani lantarki da ke saduwa da fuskar duniya. A m shugaba (PE) (wanda aka sani da suna kayan aikin dasa ƙasa a cikin Lambar Wutar Lantarki ta )asar Amurka) tana guje wa haɗarin girgizar wutar lantarki ta hanyar adana yanayin aikin da ke haɗe da na'urorin haɗin da ke kusa da yiwuwar yanayin aibi. Idan akwai matsala, ana barin halin yanzu zuwa ƙasa ta tsarin ƙasa. Idan wannan ya wuce kima kariya ta fis da kewayen mahaɗa zata yi aiki, don haka kare da'irar da cire duk wata damuwa da ke haifar da abubuwa daga saman da aka nuna. Wannan cire haɗin ginshiki ne mai mahimmancin tsarin wayoyi na zamani kuma ana kiransa da "Yankewar Kai tsaye ta wadata" (ADS). Valuesimar ƙimar ƙasa madaidaiciyar izinin lalacewa da halaye na na'urori masu kariya na wuce gona da iri ana ƙididdige su sosai cikin ƙa'idodin amincin lantarki don tabbatar da hakan ta faru da sauri kuma yayin da yawan wuce gona da iri ke kwarara haɗari masu haɗari ba faruwa a saman abubuwan da ake gudanarwa ba. Saboda haka kariya ta hanyar iyakance hawan ƙarfin lantarki da tsawon lokacin sa.

Madadin shi ne tsaro a cikin zurfi - kamar ƙarfafawa ko ruɓanyawa biyu - inda gazawar masu zaman kansu da yawa dole ne su faru don fallasa mummunan yanayin.

Aikin qasa

A aikin ƙasa Haɗin yana aiki ne da wani abu dabam da amincin lantarki, kuma yana iya ɗaukar na yanzu wani ɓangare na aiki na yau da kullun. Misali mafi mahimmancin ƙasa mai aiki shine tsaka tsaki cikin tsarin wutan lantarki lokacin da yake mai ɗaukar motsi na yanzu wanda yake da alaƙa da ƙwanƙolin ƙasa a tushen wutan lantarki. Sauran misalai na na’urorin da ke amfani da haɗin keɓaɓɓiyar ƙasa sun haɗa da masu aikin tiyata da kuma matattarar maɗaukakin lantarki.

Tsarin ƙarfin lantarki mai ƙarancin wuta

A cikin cibiyoyin sadarwar masu karfin wutan lantarki, wadanda suke rarraba wutar lantarki ga mafi girman ajin masu amfani na karshe, babban abin damuwar tsara tsarin kasa shine kare lafiyar masu amfani da suke amfani da kayan lantarki da kuma kariya daga matsalolin lantarki. Tsarin ƙasa, a haɗe tare da na'urori masu kariya kamar su fis da sauran na'urorin yanzu, dole ne a ƙarshe su tabbatar da cewa mutum ba zai taɓa ma'amala da wani ƙarfe ba wanda ƙarfin dangin mutum ya zarce ƙofar "lafiya", yawanci an saita shi game da 50 V.

A kan hanyoyin sadarwar wutar lantarki tare da wutar lantarki mai karfin 240 V zuwa 1.1 kV, wanda galibi ana amfani da su a cikin masana'antun / kayan hakar ma'adinai / injuna maimakon hanyoyin sadarwar da jama'a ke samun su, tsarin tsarin ƙasa yana da mahimmanci daidai daga yanayin tsaro kamar na masu amfani da gida.

A mafi yawan ƙasashe masu tasowa, an gabatar da kwandunan 220 V, 230 V, ko 240 V tare da lambobin ƙasa tun kafin ko ba daɗewa ba bayan Yaƙin Duniya na II, kodayake tare da bambancin ƙasa da shahara. A Amurka da Kanada, tashoshin wutar lantarki 120 V da aka girka kafin tsakiyar 1960s gabaɗaya basu haɗa da fil ɗin ƙasa (ƙasa) ba. A cikin ƙasashe masu tasowa, aikin waya na cikin gida na iya ba da haɗin haɗi zuwa maɓuɓɓugar ƙasa ta kanti.

Idan babu wadatar ƙasa, na'urori da ke buƙatar haɗin duniya sukan yi amfani da tsaka tsaki ba tare da wadata ba. Wasu sun yi amfani da sandunan ƙasa da aka keɓe. Yawancin kayan aiki na 110 V suna da matosai na zamani don kiyaye bambanci tsakanin “layi” da “tsaka tsaki”, amma yin amfani da wadataccen kayan don kayan ƙasa na iya zama matsala sosai. “Layin” da “tsaka tsaki” na iya juyawa ta haɗari ta hanyar shiga ko toshe, ko haɗin tsaka-da-ƙasa na iya kasawa ko shigar da su ba daidai ba. Koda raƙuman ruwa na yau da kullun a cikin tsaka-tsakin na iya haifar da digirin lantarki mai haɗari. Saboda waɗannan dalilai, yawancin ƙasashe yanzu sun ba da izinin sadaukar da haɗin duniya wanda ya kusan kusan duniya.

Idan hanyar kuskure tsakanin abubuwan ba da ƙarfi ta hanyar wuta da kuma hanyar haɗin kai ba ta da ƙaranci, laifin da aka samu zai kasance babba sosai har in da abin da ke ba da kariya na kewaye da wuta (fis ɗin da mai fashewar da'ira) zai buɗe don ɓoye laifin ƙasa. Inda tsarin ƙasa ba ya samar da mai ƙarancin ƙarfe mai jagora tsakanin rakodin kayan aiki da dawowar kayan aiki (kamar a cikin tsarin TT dabam da aka yi amfani da shi), raƙuman ruwa suna ƙarami, kuma ba lallai ba ne su yi amfani da na'urar kariya ta wuce gona da iri. A irin wannan yanayin an sanya mai binciken na yanzu don gano yadin da ke gudana a ƙasa da katsewar da'irar.

Kalmomin IEC

Matsayi na duniya IEC 60364 ya bambanta iyalai uku na tsarin tsara duniya, ta amfani da lambobin wasiƙu biyu TN, TT, Da kuma IT.

Harafin farko yana nuna haɗi tsakanin ƙasa da kayan samar da wutar lantarki (janareto ko na'urar canji):

"T" - Hadin kai tsaye na ma'ana tare da duniya (Latin: terra)
"Ni" - Babu ma'amala da ta haɗu da ƙasa (warewa), sai dai watakila ta hanyar tsattsauran ra'ayi.

Harafi na biyu yana nuna haɗi tsakanin ƙasa ko cibiyar sadarwa da na'urar da ake bayarwa ta lantarki:

"T" - Haɗin ƙasa shine ta hanyar haɗin kai tsaye zuwa gida (Latin: terra), yawanci ta sandar ƙasa.
"N" - Ana kawo haɗin duniya ta hanyar wutar lantarki Network, ko dai azaman kariya ta ƙasa (PE) mai jagoranci ko kuma haɗe tare da mai ba da tsaka tsaki.

Iri cibiyoyin sadarwa na TN

a cikin wata TN Tsarin ƙasa, ɗayan maki a cikin janareta ko mai juyawa yana da alaƙa da ƙasa, yawanci alamar tauraro a cikin tsarin matakai uku. An haɗa jikin na'urar lantarki tare da ƙasa ta wannan haɗin yanar gizon akan mai canzawa. Wannan tsari shine ma'aunin yanzu don tsarin lantarki da masana'antu musamman na Turai.

Ana kiran madugin da ya haɗa sassan ƙarfe na shigarwar wutar lantarki na mabukaci m duniya. Mai ba da hanya da ke haɗuwa da maɓallin tauraruwa a cikin tsarin matakai guda uku, ko kuma wanda ke ɗauke da dawowa na yanzu a tsarin tsari na lokaci guda, ana kiransa tsaka tsaki (N). An bambanta bambance-bambancen tsarin TN guda uku:

T − S
PE da N sune masu jagoranci daban daban waɗanda aka haɗa tare kawai kusa da tushen wutar lantarki.
T − C
Hadin mai jagoran PEN yana cika ayyukan duka PE da mai ba da jagora. (akan tsarin 230 / 400v galibi ana amfani da shi ne kawai don hanyoyin sadarwar rarraba)
T − C − C
Wani ɓangare na tsarin yana amfani da haɗin mai haɗa PEN, wanda a wasu lokuta an raba shi zuwa layin PE da N daban. Haɗa mai haɗawa da PEN ana faruwa ne tsakanin tsakanin abubuwa da kuma hanyar shiga ginin, kuma ƙasa da tsaka tsaki sun rabu cikin shugaban sabis. A cikin Ingila, wannan tsarin kuma ana kiranta da m mahara earthing (PME), saboda aiwatar da haɗin haɗin mai haɗa tsaka-tsaki da ƙasa zuwa duniya ta ainihi a wurare da yawa, don rage haɗarin girgiza wutar lantarki yayin haɗarin mai jagoran PEN da ya karye. An kuma tsara irin waɗannan tsarin a Australia da New Zealand a matsayin tsaka tsaki (MEN) kuma, a Arewacin Amurka, as tsaka tsaki (MGN).
TN-S: keɓaɓɓen ƙasa mai kariya (PE) da tsaka tsaki (N) masu jagoranci daga canji zuwa na'urar cinyewa, waɗanda ba a haɗa su tare a kowane lokaci bayan ginin rarraba ginin.
TN-C: haɗe tare da PE da N mai jagoranta koyaushe daga mai canzawa zuwa na'urar mai cinyewa.
Tsarin TN-CS earthing: hada PEN mai ba da hanya daga mai canzawa zuwa tashar rarraba abubuwa, amma rarrabe na PE da N a cikin tsararrun wayoyi na cikin gida da madaidaitan igiyar wuta.

 

Zai yiwu a sami duka abubuwan TN-S da TN-CS da aka karɓa daga wannan gidan wuta. Misali, kwallun da ke wasu igiyoyi na karkashin kasa sun lalata kuma sun daina samar da kyakkyawar alaka ta duniya, don haka gidajen da ake samun tsayin daka “mummunar duniya” ana iya canza su zuwa TN-CS. Wannan zai yiwu ne kawai akan hanyar sadarwa lokacin da tsaka tsaki ya dace da gazawa, kuma canzawa baya yuwu koyaushe. PEN dole ne ya zama ya dace da ƙarfafawa akan gazawa, kamar yadda PEN mai zagaye yake iya burge cikakken ƙarfin lantarki akan kowane ƙarfe da aka fallasa wanda yake da alaƙa da tsarin ƙasa zuwa hutu. Madadin shine don samar da ƙasa ta gida da canzawa zuwa TT. Babban abin jan hankali ga hanyar sadarwar TN shine ƙananan ƙarancin ƙasa yana ba da damar cire haɗin atomatik mai sauƙi (ADS) a kan babban layi na yanzu dangane da layin-zuwa-PE gajeren hanya kamar yadda mai fashewa ko fis ɗin zai yi aiki don LN ko L -PE lahani, kuma RCD ba'a buƙata don gano kuskuren ƙasa.

TT cibiyar sadarwa

a cikin wata TT (Terra-Terra) tsarin duniyan, ana bada mahada ta duniya mai karewa ga mabukaci ta hanyar lantarki ta duniya, (wani lokacin ana kiranta da Terra-Firma dangane) kuma akwai wani wanda aka girka da kansa a janareto. Babu 'wayar duniya' tsakanin su biyun. Rashin kuskuren madauki ya fi girma, kuma sai dai idan ƙarancin wutar lantarki yayi ƙasa ƙwarai da gaske, shigarwar TT koyaushe ya kasance yana da RCD (GFCI) a matsayin mai raba shi na farko.

Babban fa'idar tsarin ƙasa TT shine rage tsangwama da aka gudanar daga sauran kayan haɗin haɗin masu amfani. TT koyaushe an fi so don aikace-aikace na musamman kamar shafukan sadarwar sadarwa waɗanda ke cin gajiyar ƙasa mai tsangwama. Hakanan, cibiyoyin sadarwar TT basa haifar da haɗari mai girma game da batun tsaka tsaki. Bugu da kari, a wuraren da ake rarraba wutar a sama, masu tafiyar da kasa ba su cikin hatsarin rayuwa idan ya kasance duk wani mai gudanar da aikin rarraba sama ya karye ta, kamar yadda ya ce, itace ko reshe ya fadi.

A zamanin pre-RCD, tsarin TT earthing bai kasance mai jan hankali ba ga amfani na gaba daya saboda wahalar shirya ingantaccen cire haɗin kai tsaye (ADS) dangane da layin gajeren zango-da-PE (idan aka kwatanta da tsarin TN, a inda guda mai fashewa ko fis zai yi aiki don ko LN ko labanin L-PE). Amma kamar yadda kayan aikin yanzu suke rage wannan lalacewar, tsarin TT earthing ya zama mafi kyan gani idan aka samar da dukkanin tashoshin wutar lantarki na AC. A wasu ƙasashe (kamar su UK) ana bada shawara don yanayi inda ƙananan rashin ƙarfin kayan masarufi ba shi da mahimmanci don ci gaba ta hanyar haɗin gwiwa, inda akwai manyan hanyoyin waje, irin su kayan masarufi ga gidaje masu motsi da wasu saitunan aikin gona, ko kuma inda babban laifi yake yanzu na iya haifar da wasu hatsarori, kamar su depo de mai ko marinas.

Ana amfani da tsarin TT earthing a ko'ina cikin Japan, tare da raka'a RCD a yawancin saitunan masana'antu. Wannan na iya gabatar da ƙarin buƙatu akan faifai masu canzawa da kuma wadatar wutar lantarki waɗanda suke sau da yawa suna da manyan matattara masu wucewa na saurin mitar zuwa jagoran ƙasa.

Cibiyar sadarwa ta IT

a wani IT cibiyar sadarwa, tsarin rarraba wutar lantarki bashi da wata alaƙa da duniya kwata-kwata, ko kuma yana da babban illa kawai.

kwatanta

TT IT TN-S TN-C TN-CS
Duniya laifi madauki impedance high Mafi Girma low low low
RCD sun fi so? A N / A ZABI A'a ZABI
Ana buƙatar ƙwanƙolin ƙasa a wurin? A A A'a A'a ZABI
Kudin mai jagoran PE low low Mafi Girma kalla high
Hadarin fashe tsaka tsaki A'a A'a high Mafi Girma high
Safety Safe Kadan lafiya Safest Mara Lafiya Safe
Harkokin tsinkayyar electromagnetic kalla kalla low high low
Hadarin aminci Babban madaukai ikon (mataki voltages) Laifi na biyu, overvoltage Tsage tsaka tsaki Tsage tsaka tsaki Tsage tsaka tsaki
Abũbuwan amfãni Safe da abin dogara Ci gaba da aiki, farashi Safest cost Aminci da farashi

Sauran kalmomin

Duk da yake dokokin wayoyi na ƙasa don gine-gine na ƙasashe da yawa suna bin kalmomin IEC 60364, a Arewacin Amurka (Amurka da Kanada), kalmar “mai gudanar da aikin sa kayan ƙasa” tana nufin filayen kayan aiki da wayoyin ƙasa a kan da'irorin reshe, da kuma "ƙaddamar da mai ba da wutar lantarki" ana amfani dashi don masu jagorantar haɗa sandar ƙasa (ko makamancin haka) zuwa kwamitin sabis. "Mai gudanar da ƙasa" shine tsarin "tsaka tsaki". Matsayi na Australiya da New Zealand suna amfani da ingantaccen tsarin ƙasa mai suna Multiple Earthed Neutral (MEN). Tsaka-tsakin yana ƙasa (ƙasa) a kowane wurin sabis na mabukaci don haka yana kawo bambancin yiwuwar tsaka tsaki zuwa sifili tare da duk layin LV. A cikin Burtaniya da wasu ƙasashe na Commonwealth, kalmar "PNE", ma'ana ana amfani da Phase-Neutral-Earth don nuna cewa ana amfani da masu jagora guda uku (ko sama da haka don haɗa-haɗen lokaci guda), watau, PN-S.

Resistance-earthed tsaka tsaki (India)

Hakazalika da tsarin HT, ana gabatar da tsarin ƙasa mai juriya don hakar ma'adinai a Indiya kamar yadda Dokokin Hukumar Lantarki ta Tsakiya ta tsarin LT (1100 V> LT> 230 V). A madadin daskararren duniya mai tauraruwa mai matsakaicin yanayi an ƙara juriya ta ƙasa (NGR) a tsakanin, ƙuntata kwararar duniya har zuwa 750 MA. Saboda lahani na halin yanzu ya fi aminci ga ma'adinan gas.

Da yake an takaita kwararar kasa, kariyar kwararar ruwa tana da iyakar iyaka ga shigar 750 mA kawai. A cikin tsaftataccen tsarin kwararar zamani wanda zai iya zuwa gajeren zagaye na yanzu, anan an taƙaita shi zuwa iyakar 750 MA. Wannan takaitaccen aiki na yanzu yana rage ingancin aiki na ba da kariya ta ba da kariya. Mahimmancin ingantaccen kariya mafi aminci ya karu don aminci, daga haɗarin wutar lantarki a cikin ma'adinai.

A cikin wannan tsarin akwai yiwuwar cewa juriya ta haɗu da buɗewa. Don hana wannan ƙarin kariyar don kula da juriya an tura, wanda ke cire haɗin idan akwai matsala.

Learfin kwance cikin ƙasa

Lalacewar Duniya na halin yanzu na iya cutar da mutane sosai, idan ya ratsa ta cikinsu. Don kaucewa girgizar haɗari ta hanyar kayan lantarki / kayan aikin fitar ruwa a duniya / firikwensin ana amfani da shi a asalin don keɓe wutar yayin da malalar ta wuce wasu iyaka. Ana amfani da maƙerin kewayawar duniya don manufa. Ana kiran mai lalata ma'ana na yanzu RCB / RCCB. A cikin aikace-aikacen masana'antu, ana amfani da maɓuɓɓugar ɓoye na duniya tare da CT daban (mai canzawa na yanzu) wanda ake kira CBCT (babban mai canza halin yanzu) wanda ke jin rarar ruwa a halin yanzu (sifilin lokaci na yanzu) na tsarin ta hanyar sakandare na CBCT kuma wannan yana aiki da gudun ba da sanda. Wannan kariya tana aiki a cikin kewayon milli-Amps kuma ana iya saita ta daga 30 MA zuwa 3000 MA.

Binciken haɗin haɗin ƙasa

An ware wani matattarar matukin jirgi p daga tsarin rarraba / kayan samar da kayan aiki ban da na duniya. An kafa na'urar tantance haɗin haɗin ƙasa a ƙarshen ƙoshin ɗin wanda ke ci gaba da saka idanu kan haɗin duniya. Tushen matukin jirgi p ya fara daga wannan na'urar dubawa kuma yana gudana ta hanyar haɗa kebul na trailing wanda galibi yana ba da iko ga injinan ma'adanan motsi (LHD). Wannan haɗin p an haɗa shi zuwa ƙasa a ƙarshen rarraba ta hanyar diode kewaye, wanda ya kammala daftarin lantarki wanda aka fara daga na'urar binciken. Lokacin da haɗin ƙasa da abin hawa ya karye, wannan haɗin matukin jirgi ya yanke, haɗin kare wanda aka ƙaddara a ƙarshen aikin zai kunna kuma, ware wutar lantarki. Wannan nau'in da'irar lantarki dole ne don amfani da kayan lantarki masu nauyi da ake amfani da su a ƙarƙashin ma'adanan ƙasa.

Properties

cost

  • Cibiyoyin sadarwa na TN suna adana farashin haɗin ƙasa mai ƙarancin ƙasa a wurin kowane mai amfani. Ana buƙatar irin wannan haɗin (tsarin ginin ƙarfe) m duniya a cikin tsarin IT da TT.
  • Hanyoyin yanar sadarwar TN-C suna ajiye farashin ƙarin mai jagoran da ake buƙata don haɗin N da PE daban. Koyaya, don rage haɗarin ƙwayoyin lalacewa, ana buƙatar nau'ikan kebul na musamman da sadarwa mai yawa zuwa duniya.
  • TT hanyoyin sadarwa suna buƙatar kariyar RCD mai kyau (Gri laifi interrupter).

Safety

  • A cikin TN, kuskuren ruɓewa da alama yana iya haifar da wani ɗan gajeren gajere na yanzu wanda zai haifar da mai wucewa mai fashewa ko kashe ruwa da kuma cire haɗin injin ɗin L. Tare da tsarin TT, ƙarancin lalacewa na ƙasa zai iya yin muni sosai don yin wannan, ko ya yi girma da yawa don yin shi a cikin lokacin da ake buƙata, don haka ana yin RCD (wanda a da ELCB ne). Abubuwan shigarwa na TT na baya na iya rasa wannan muhimmiyar yanayin aminci, ƙyale CPC (Jagorar Kare Kewaye ko PE) kuma wataƙila sassan haɗin ƙarfe tsakanin isar mutane (fallasa-sassan-ɓangarori da sassan jiki) don samun kuzari na tsawan lokaci yayin laifi yanayi, wanda yake haɗari ne na gaske.
  • A cikin tsarin TN-S da TT (kuma a cikin TN-CS sama da ma'adanin tsinkaye), za'a iya amfani da na'urar ta-sauraran don ƙarin kariya. Idan babu matsala tazara a cikin na'urar mai amfani, daidaituwa IL1+IL2+IL3+IN = 0 yana riƙe, kuma RCD na iya cire haɗin samar da zaran wannan adadin ya kai ƙofar (yawanci 10 mA - 500 mA). Laifin rufi tsakanin L ko N da PE zai haifar da RCD tare da babban damar.
  • A cikin cibiyoyin sadarwa na IT da TN-C, sauran na'urorin da ke saura yanzu ba su da matsala su gano matsala ta ɓarna. A cikin tsarin TN-C, zasu iya zama masu sauƙin haɗari ga abubuwan da ba a buƙata ba daga haɗuwa tsakanin masu gudanar da tashoshin girgije akan RCDs daban-daban ko tare da ƙasa na ainihi, don haka yin amfani da su zai zama marasa amfani. Hakanan, RCDs yawanci suna ware tsakiyar tsaka tsaki. Tunda ba shi da haɗari yin wannan a cikin tsarin TN-C, RCDs akan TN-C ya kamata a haɗa su don kawai su katse mai jagoran.
  • A cikin tsarin tsaran-tsararren tsari guda daya inda Duniya da tsaka-tsaki ke haɗuwa (TN-C, da kuma ɓangaren tsarin TN-CS wanda ke amfani da haɗin tsaka-tsaki da ƙasan ƙasa), idan akwai matsalar tuntuɓar mai jagoran PEN, to Dukkanin sassan duniya wanda ya wuce hutu zai tashi zuwa yuwuwar mai jagoran L. A tsarin da bai dace da tsari mai yawa ba, yiwuwar tsarin dunkule zai tafi zuwa ga mai jagorantar layin da yafi aiki. Irin wannan haɓakawa a cikin yuwuwar tsaka tsaki fiye da hutu an san shi da a tsaka tsaki ciki. Sabili da haka, haɗin TN-C dole ne su ƙetare haɗin haɗin toshe / soket ko igiyoyin masu sassauƙa, inda akwai yiwuwar yiwuwar matsalar tuntuɓar fiye da tsayayyen wayoyi. Hakanan akwai haɗari idan kebul ya lalace, wanda za'a iya rage shi ta hanyar amfani da kebul mai ƙayyadewa da kuma wayoyin ƙasa da yawa. Saboda ƙananan (ƙananan) haɗarin asarar ƙarfe na 'ƙarfe' aikin ƙarfe zuwa haɗari mai haɗari, haɗe da haɗarin firgita daga kusanci zuwa kyakkyawar hulɗa da ƙasa ta gaskiya, an hana amfani da kayan TN-CS a Burtaniya don sitesungiyoyin vanyari da wadatar ruwa zuwa jiragen ruwa, kuma an hana su ƙarfi don amfani akan gonaki da wuraren ginin waje, kuma a irin waɗannan lokuta ana ba da shawarar yin dukkan igiyoyin TT na waje tare da RCD da kuma keɓaɓɓiyar wutar lantarki ta duniya.
  • A cikin tsare-tsaren IT, rashin tsaro guda ɗaya ba shi yiwuwa ya haifar da ramuwar haɗari ta gudana cikin jikin ɗan adam dangane da ƙasa, saboda babu wani ɗan ƙaramin ƙarfi da kewaya don irin wannan halin na gudana. Koyaya, Laifin mamaye na farko na iya juyar da tsarin IT a cikin tsarin TN, sannan kuskuren rufe na biyu na iya haifar da haɓakawar jikin mutum. Mafi muni, a tsarin tsarin da yawa, idan daya daga cikin masu jagorantar layi ya tuntubi duniya, hakan zai sa sauran juzu'ikan matakin su tashi zuwa makamancin wutar lantarki ta zamani-a maimakon tsaka mai karfin tsaka-tsaki. Hakanan tsarin IT yana fuskantar abubuwan tazara fiye da sauran tsarin.
  • A cikin tsarin TN-C da TN-CS, duk wata alaƙa tsakanin haɗin gwiwar tsaka-tsaki-da-ƙasa da jikin ƙasa zai iya ɗaukar nauyi mai mahimmanci a ƙarƙashin yanayin al'ada, kuma yana iya ɗaukar ƙari fiye da yanayin tsaka tsaki na tsaka tsaki. Saboda haka, manyan abubuwan samar da kayan haɗin kwangila dole ne a cika su da wannan a hankali; yin amfani da TN-CS ba a iya rikitarwa a cikin yanayi kamar tashoshin mai, inda akwai tarin ayyukan baƙin ƙarfe da gas mai fashewa.

Karfin wutar lantarki

  • A cikin tsarin TN-S da TT, mabukaci yana da alaƙa mai saurin haɓakawa zuwa ƙasa, wanda baya wahala daga ƙarfin lantarki wanda ya bayyana akan mai gudanarwar N sakamakon raƙuman ruwa na dawowar da kuma tasirin waccan direba. Wannan yana da mahimmanci musamman tare da wasu nau'ikan sadarwa da kayan aikin aunawa.
  • A cikin tsarin TT, kowane mabukaci yana da alaƙa da kansa a cikin ƙasa, kuma ba zai lura da duk wata hanyar da ke faruwa ba ta hanyar sauran masu amfani da ita a kan hanyar layin PE.

dokokin

  • A Electrica'idar Lantarki ta Nationalasar Amurka da Lambar Wutar Lantarki ta Kanada abincin daga mai canzawa yana amfani da mai ba da haɗin kai da mai ba da ƙasa, amma a cikin tsarin ana amfani da mahaɗan keɓaɓɓu da masu ba da kariya na ƙasa (TN-CS). Dole ne a haɗa tsaka tsaki zuwa duniya kawai a gefen wadatar mai sauya haɗin haɗin abokin ciniki.
  • A cikin Argentina, Faransa (TT) da Ostiraliya (TN-CS), abokan ciniki dole ne su samar da haɗin kansu na ƙasa.
  • Kasar Japan tana karkashin doka ta PSE, kuma tana amfani da TT earthing a yawancin shigarwa.
  • A Ostiraliya, ana amfani da tsarin ba da izini na Multiple Earthed Neutral (MEN) kuma an bayyana shi a Sashe na 5 na AS 3000. Ga abokin ciniki na LV, tsarin TN-C ne daga mai canzawa a titin zuwa wuraren gabatarwa, (tsaka tsaki shine Fitar sau da yawa yayin wannan ɓangaren), da tsarin TN-S a cikin shigarwa, daga Babban Sauyawa zuwa ƙasa. An dube shi gaba ɗaya, tsarin TN-CS ne.
  • A cikin Denmark babban tsarin wutar lantarki (Stærkstrømsbekendtgørelsen) da kuma Malaysia Hukumar Kula da Wutar Lantarki ta 1994 ta ce duk mai amfani da shi dole ne ya yi amfani da TT earthing, kodayake a lokuta da dama ana iya yarda da TN-CS (ana amfani da su kamar yadda yake a Amurka). Dokokin sun banbanta ga manyan kamfanoni.
  • A Indiya kamar yadda Dokokin Hukumar Kula da Wutar Lantarki ta Tsakiya, CEAR, 2010, suka kafa doka ta 41, akwai tanadin samar da waya, tsaka tsaki na tsarin 3-phase, 4-waya da kuma karin waya ta uku na wani bangare na 2, na 3-waya. Za a yi amfani da ƙasa tare da haɗi biyu daban. Tsarin ƙasa shima yana da mafi ƙarancin rami biyu ko fiye na ƙasa (lantarki) kamar yadda yakamata ayi ƙasa. Kamar yadda doka ta 42 take, sanyawa tare da kaya sama da 5 kW da ya wuce 250 V zai sami dacewar na'urar kariya daga Duniya domin ware kayan idan matsalar kasa ce ko kwararar ruwa.

Misalan aikace-aikace

  • A yankuna na Burtaniya inda ake amfani da ƙarfin kulle-kuli ƙarƙashin ƙasa, tsarin TN-S ya zama ruwan dare gama gari.
  • A Indiya samar da LT gaba ɗaya shine ta hanyar tsarin TN-S. Matsakaici yana ƙasa sau biyu a juzu'in rarraba. Matsakaici da ƙasa suna gudana daban-daban akan rarraba saman layi / igiyoyi. Ana amfani da mai zaɓaɓɓen mai jagoranci don layin saman da ɗaukar igiyoyi don haɗin duniya. Installedarin ƙarin abubuwan lantarki / rami an sanya su a ƙarshen mai amfani don ƙarfafa ƙasa.
  • Yawancin gidaje na zamani a Turai suna da tsarin ƙasa na TN-CS. Haɗin tsaka-tsaka da ƙasa suna faruwa tsakanin maɓallin gidan wuta mafi kusa da yanke sabis (fis ɗin kafin mita). Bayan wannan, ana amfani da ƙasa mai rarrabe da maɓallan tsaka a cikin dukkan wayoyi na ciki.
  • Gidajen tsofaffin birane da na kewayen birni a Burtaniya suna da wadataccen kayan agaji na TN-S, tare da haɗin ƙasa wanda aka kawo ta hanyar jagoran kebul na ƙarƙashin ƙasa da takarda na USB.
  • Gidaje tsofaffi a Norway suna amfani da tsarin IT yayin da sababbi gidaje ke amfani da TN-CS.
  • Wasu tsofaffin gidaje, musamman waɗanda aka gina kafin ƙirƙirar wuraren keɓewa na yanzu da kuma hanyoyin sadarwa na gida, suna amfani da tsarin gidan TN-C. Wannan ba abin da aka ba da shawarar aikatawa ba.
  • Dakin dakunan gwaje-gwaje, wuraren aikin likita, wuraren gine-gine, wuraren karatuttukan gyare-gyare, shigarwa na lantarki ta hannu, da sauran wuraren da ake bayarwa ta hanyar injin-injin da ke ƙara haɗarin ruɗar ruɗani, galibi kan yi amfani da tsarin da IT ke kawowa daga masu kawo canji. Don rage maganganu biyu da ke tattare da tsarin IT, masu ba da izini a cikin ya kamata su ba da adadin kuɗaɗe kowannensu kuma ya kamata a kiyaye shi da na'urar saka idanu ta hana iska (galibi ta likitanci, hanyar jirgin ƙasa ko kuma tsarin IT na soja, saboda tsada).
  • A cikin yankuna masu nisa, inda farashin ƙarin mai gudanarwa na PE ya zarce farashin haɗin duniya, ana amfani da hanyoyin TT a wasu ƙasashe, musamman mazan tsofaffi ko a yankunan karkara, inda amincin zai iya yin barazanar fashewar wani abu saman mai gudanar da PE ta, ka ce, reshe reshe na itace. Hakanan ana ganin abubuwan TT ga dukiyoyin mutum a yawancin tsarin TN-CS inda ana la'akari da dukiyar mutum bai dace da wadatarwar TN-CS ba.
  • A Ostiraliya, New Zealand da Isra’ila ana amfani da tsarin TN-CS; duk da haka, dokokin wayoyi a halin yanzu suna bayyana cewa, ƙari, kowane abokin ciniki dole ne ya samar da haɗin kansa daban da ƙasa ta hanyar haɗin bututun ruwa (idan bututun ƙarfe na ƙarfe sun shiga harabar masu amfani) da kuma keɓaɓɓiyar wutar lantarki ta duniya. A Ostiraliya da New Zealand ana kiran wannan Hanyar Tsaka Mai Tsayi da yawa ko MEN Link. Wannan haɗin MEN ɗin yana cirewa don dalilan gwajin shigarwa, amma an haɗa shi yayin amfani da shi ta hanyar ko dai tsarin kullewa (makullin alal misali) ko ƙyalli biyu ko sama da haka. A cikin tsarin MEN, amincin Neutral shine mafi mahimmanci. A Ostiraliya, sabbin kayan aiki dole ne su haɗa tushen kafuwar sake tilasta aiwatarwa a ƙarƙashin yankuna masu ruwa zuwa mai gudanar da ƙasa (AS3000), yawanci yana ƙaruwa da girman ƙasa, kuma yana samar da jirgin sama mai aiki a wurare kamar wanka. A cikin tsofaffin abubuwan da aka girka, ba abin mamaki bane a sami ruwan bututun ruwa kawai, kuma an ba shi izinin zama kamar haka, amma dole ne a shigar da ƙarin lantarki na ƙasa idan an yi kowane aikin haɓaka. An haɗu da ƙasa mai kariya da masu gudanar da tsaka tsaki har sai mahaɗin mai amfani na tsakiya (wanda yake gefen abokin ciniki na haɗin tsaka tsaki na mita wutar lantarki) - bayan wannan gaba, duniya mai kariya da masu gudanar da tsaka-tsakin daban.

Tsarin ƙarfin lantarki mai ƙarfi

A cikin hanyoyin sadarwar mai karfin lantarki (sama da 1 kV), waɗanda basu da damar isa ga jama'a, mayar da hankali ga tsarin ƙirar ƙasa yana ƙasa da aminci kuma ya fi dogaro da amincin wadata, amincin kariya, da tasiri akan kayan aikin a gaban gajeren hanya. Girman mahimman gajeren zango na lokaci-zuwa-ƙasa, waɗanda suka fi na kowa, ana tasiri sosai tare da zaɓin tsarin ƙasa, saboda yawancin hanyoyin yanzu ana rufe su ta cikin ƙasa. Hannun wuta HV / MV masu saurin wuta guda uku, waɗanda ke cikin tashoshin rarrabawa, sune mafi yawan tushen samarda hanyoyin sadarwa, kuma nau'ikan tushen tsaka-tsakinsu shine yake tabbatar da tsarin ƙasa.

Akwai nau'ikan tsaran tsaran rayuwa guda biyar:

  • Rashin tsaka tsaki
  • Rashin tsaka tsaki
  • Resistance-earthed tsaka tsaki
    • -Arancin juriya
    • High-juriya earthing
  • Reactance-earthed tsaka tsaki
  • Yin amfani da kayan canji na ƙasa (kamar su Zigzag juyawa)

Rashin tsaka tsaki

In m or kai tsaye mai tsaka-tsakin kasa, tauraron maƙerin wuta yana hade kai tsaye zuwa ƙasa. A cikin wannan bayani, an samar da wata hanya mai ƙarancin ƙarfi don kuskuren ƙasa don rufewa kuma, sakamakon haka, girmansu yana da kwatankwacin haɓakar kuskuren matakai uku. Tunda tsaka tsaki ya kasance a yuwuwar kusa da ƙasa, tsaunuka a cikin matakan da ba a taɓa shafa ba suna kasancewa a matakan kama da waɗanda ba su da laifi; saboda wannan dalili, ana amfani da wannan tsarin koyaushe a cikin hanyoyin sadarwar mai saurin-ƙarfin wuta, inda tsadar rufin ke da yawa.

Resistance-earthed tsaka tsaki

Don iyakance gajeren layin ƙasa ƙarin resistancearfafa tsaka-tsakin ƙasa (NGR) an ƙara tsakanin tsaka tsaki, tauraron mai sauya wuta da ƙasa.

-Arancin juriya

Tare da low juriya laifi halin yanzu iyaka ne in mun gwada da babban. A Indiya an ƙuntata ta ga 50 A don buɗe ma'adinai a ƙasa kamar yadda Dokokin Tsarin Wutar Lantarki ta Tsakiya, CEAR, 2010, mulki 100.

Rashin tsaka tsaki

In fashe, ware or tsaka tsaki tsarin, kamar yadda yake a cikin tsarin IT, babu wata hanyar haɗin kai tsaye ta ma'anar tauraron (ko wani ma'ana a cikin hanyar sadarwa) da ƙasa. Sakamakon haka, raunin ƙasa ba su da hanyar da za a rufe don haka suna da girman girman sakaci. Koyaya, a aikace, laifin na yanzu ba zai zama daidai da sifili ba: masu jagoranci a cikin da'irar - musamman igiyoyi a ƙasa - suna da madafan iko a cikin ƙasa, wanda ke samar da ingantaccen ƙarfi.

Tsarin tare da tsakaitaccen tsaka tsaki na iya ci gaba da aiki tare da samar da wadataccen tsari ko da a gaban kasa ne.

Kasancewar matsalar ƙasa mara yankewa na iya haifar da haɗarin aminci: idan halin yanzu ya wuce 4 A - 5 A arc na lantarki ya haɓaka, wanda zai iya ɗorewa koda bayan an warware kuskuren. A dalilin haka, an iyakance su ne ta hanyoyin sadarwa na karkashin kasa da na karkashin ruwa, da kuma aikace-aikacen masana'antu, inda bukatar dogaro ke da yawa da kuma yiwuwar saduwa da dan adam kadan. A cikin hanyoyin sadarwar rarraba birane tare da masu ba da abinci na ƙasa da yawa, ƙarancin ƙarfin aiki na iya kaiwa gomomin amperes da yawa, yana haifar da haɗari ga kayan aikin.

Amfanin low laifi a halin yanzu da kuma ci gaba da tsarin aiki daga baya ana bin biyewa ta hanyar rashin daidaituwa cewa laifin wuri yana da wuyar ganowa.


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